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Glossary of Internet Terms and Phrases
Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
- SVG is a language for describing two-dimensional graphics and graphical
applications in XML for the
- 1) A
software program that searches a
database and gathers and reports information that contains or is related
to specified terms.
website whose primary function is providing a search engine for
gathering and reporting information available on the
Internet or a portion of the Internet.
- A Secure
Server uses an
certificate. It is generally a piece of web space that can only be dealt
with by using SSL ensuring that
data transferred between the web space and the
Server Side Include (SSI)
- The facility provided by most
web servers, e.g.
httpd, to replace special tags in an
HTML file with the contents of another file before the file is sent out
server, i.e. an HTML macro.
- A program which provides some service to other (client)
programs. The connection between client and server is normally by means of
message passing, often over a
network, and uses some
protocol to encode the client's requests and the server's responses. The
server may run continuously (as a daemon), waiting for requests to arrive or
it may be invoked by some higher level daemon which controls a number of
specific servers (inetd on
There are many servers associated with the
Internet, such as those for
HTTP, Network File System, Network Information Service (NIS),
Domain Name System (DNS),
news, finger, Network Time Protocol. On Unix, a long list can be found in
/etc/services or in the NIS database "services".
SGML (Standard Generalized Markup Language)
- A generic markup language for representing documents. SGML is an
International Standard that describes the relationship between a document's
content and its structure. SGML allows document-based information to be
shared and re-used across applications and computer
platforms in an open, vendor-neutral format. SGML is sometimes compared
SQL, in that it enables companies to structure information in documents
in an open fashion, so that it can be accessed or re-used by any SGML-aware
application across multiple platforms.
- A 3D animation and interactive learning technology and format from
Macromedia. Macromedia Director generates Shockwave files, which can be
viewed through a Web
plug-in (the Shockwave player) or multimedia applications that access
the player directly. Shockwave is used to develop more sophisticated
animations and interactions than Macromedia's
Flash format. Shockwave uses the .DIR (DIRector) file extension for
source files and .DCR extension for the Shockwave "movie" that is created
- A piece of
software installed on an online vendor's
web site used to produce a shopping system. This generally means product
pages, some sort of an online "basket" and a way for the customer to add,
remove and modify product selections and to check out when they are done
- Look at the Shopping
Cart solutions from Light Speed Networks
- Short for Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions, an application of
protocol for server-to-server and client-to-server interoperability in
instant messaging. SIMPLE is a step in bringing standardization to instant
SIP (Session Initiation Protocol)
- A very simple text-based application-layer control
protocol. It creates, modifies, and terminates sessions with one or more
participants. Such sessions include
Internet telephony and multimedia conferences.
SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language)
- The Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL, pronounced
"smile") enables simple authoring of interactive audiovisual presentations.
SMIL is typically used for "rich media"/multimedia presentations which
integrate streaming audio and video with images, text or any other media
type. SMIL is an easy-to-learn
HTML-like language, and many SMIL presentations are written using a
- The programs, routines, and symbolic languages that control the
functioning of the hardware and direct its operation.
e-mail, often of a commercial nature, sent indiscriminately to multiple
mailing lists, individuals, or
newsgroups; junk e-mail.
SQL (Standard Query Language)
- An industry-standard language for creating, updating and, querying
relational database management systems.
SQL was developed by IBM in the 1970s for use in System R. It is the de
facto standard as well as being an ISO and ANSI standard. It is often
embedded in general purpose
The first SQL standard, in 1986, provided basic language constructs for
defining and manipulating tables of
data; a revision in 1989 added language extensions for referential
integrity and generalised integrity constraints. Another revision in 1992
provided facilities for schema manipulation and data administration, as well
as substantial enhancements for data definition and data manipulation.
According to Allen G. Taylor, SQL does _not_ stand for "Structured Query
Language". That, like "SEQUEL" (and its pronunciation /see'kw*l/), was just
another unofficial name for a precursor of SQL. However, the IBM SQL
Reference manual for DB2 and Craig Mullins's "DB2 Developer's Guide" say SQL
_does_ stand for "Structured Query Language".
relational DBMS from Sybase and from Microsoft. Sybase introduced SQL
Server in 1988 for various
Unix versions. In that same year, with help from IBM, Sybase created an
OS/2 version that Microsoft licensed and branded as Microsoft SQL Server.
Sybase later ported the product to NT and NetWare, and Sybase and Microsoft
sold the same version for NT under their own brand names for several years.
The partnership ended in 1994 with Version 4, and each company continued
developing its version of the product separately. Microsoft SQL Server
became Microsoft's flagship
software for Windows. In 1997, Sybase turned its version into Sybase
Adaptive Server Enterprise, which uses different
data stores optimized for specific applications.
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer)
protocol designed by Netscape Communications Corporation to provide
encrypted communications on the Internet. SSL is layered beneath application
protocols such as
Gopher, and NNTP and is layered above the connection protocol
TCP/IP. It is used by the HTTPS access method.
- The ability of
search engines to associate words with prefixes and suffixes to their
word stem. If you have "design" on your
website, the search engines with this ability will also associate
"designer" and "designed" with your page.
- Style sheets describe how documents are presented on screens, in print,
or perhaps how they are pronounced.
- An execution mode on some processors which enables execution of all
instructions, including privileged instructions. It may also give access to
different a address space, to memory management hardware and to other
peripherals. This is the mode in which the
operating system usually runs.
software required to support the production or execution of
application programs but which is not specific to any particular
System software typically includes an
operating system to control the execution of other programs; user
environment software such as a
command-line interpreter, window system, desktop; development tools for
building other programs such as assemblers, compilers, linkers, libraries,
interpreters, cross-reference generators, version control, make; debugging,
profiling and monitoring tools; utility programs, e.g. for sorting,
printing, and editting.
Different people would classify some or all of the above system software as
part of the operating system while others might say the operating system was
- Study of the design, specification, feasibility, cost, and
implementation of a computer system for business. What a systems analyst
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