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Glossary of Internet Terms and Phrases
- A measure of the number of times an
HTML file was requested from the
image files aren't counted. Unlike unique visitors or users, one person
visiting the same page multiple times may be counted.
- A sequence of characters that one must input to gain access to a file,
application, or computer system.
- An online system for real-time charging of credit cards when a customer
places an order. Normally requires a
PDF (Portable Document Format)
- The native file format for Adobe Systems' Acrobat. PDF is the file
format for representing documents in a manner that is independent of the
software, hardware, and
operating system used to create those documents. A PDF file can describe
documents containing any combination of text, graphics, and images in a
device-independent and resolution independent format. These documents can be
one page or thousands of pages, very simple or extremely complex with a rich
use of fonts, graphics, color, and images.
high-level programming language, started by Larry Wall in 1987 and
developed as an
open source project. It has an eclectic heritage, deriving from the
programming language and to a lesser extent from sed, awk, various
Unix shell languages, Lisp, and at least a dozen other tools and
languages. Originally developed for Unix, it is now available for many
The use of Perl has grown significantly since its adoption as the language
of choice of many
World-Wide Web developers.
interfaces and libraries for Perl exist for several platforms and Perl's
speed and flexibility make it well suited for form processing and on-the-fly
web page creation.
Perl programs are generally stored as text source files, which are compiled
into virtual machine code at run time; this, in combination with its rich
variety of data types and its common use as a glue language, makes Perl
somewhat hard to classify as either a "scripting language" or an
"applications language" -- see Ousterhout's dichotomy. Perl programs are
usually called "Perl scripts", if only for historical reasons.
Pixel (PIX [picture] ELement)
- The smallest addressable unit on a display screen. The higher the pixel
resolution (the more rows and columns of pixels), the more information can
Platform for Privacy Preferences (P3P) Project
- The Platform for Privacy Preferences Project (P3P), developed by the
World Wide Web Consortium, is emerging as an industry standard providing
a simple, automated way for users to gain more control over the use of
personal information on
Web sites they visit. At its most basic level, P3P is a standardized set
of multiple-choice questions, covering all the major aspects of a Web site's
privacy policies. Taken together, they present a clear snapshot of how a
site handles personal information about its users. P3P-enabled Web sites
make this information available in a standard, machine-readable format. P3P
enabled browsers can "read" this snapshot automatically and compare it to
the consumer's own set of privacy preferences. P3P enhances user control by
putting privacy policies where users can find them, in a form users can
understand, and, most importantly, enables users to act on what they see.
- The basic technology of a computer system's hardware and
software that defines how a computer is operated and determines what
other kinds of software can be used.
- A file containing
data used to alter, enhance, or extend the operation of a parent
application program. One of the first uses of this term was in Silicon
Beach's SuperPaint application (late 1980s?) for the Macintosh. It had a
Plug-ins folder containing different tools and effects.
The Netscape Navigator
browser supports plug-ins which display or interpret a particular file
format or protocol such as Shockwave, RealAudio, Adobe Systems, Inc. PDF,
Corel CMX (vector graphics). The file to be displayed is included in a web
page using an EMBED
Plug-ins, both commercially and independently authored, can usually be
downloaded for free and are stored locally. Plug-ins come in different
versions specific to particular
operating systems (Microsoft Windows 3.1, 3.2, and Macintosh are
PNG (Portable Network Graphics)
- PNG is an extensible file format for the lossless, portable,
well-compressed storage of raster images. PNG provides a patent-free
and can also replace many common uses of TIFF. Indexed-color, grayscale, and
truecolor images are supported, plus an optional alpha channel for
transparency. Sample depths range from 1 to 16 bits per component (up to
48bit images for RGB, or 64bit for RGBA).
- Relating to or being
software that can run on two or more kinds of computers or with two or
more kinds of
web site that aims to be an entry point to the
World-Wide Web, typically offering a
search engine and/or links to useful pages, and possibly news or other
services. These services are usually provided for free in the hope that
users will make the site their default
home page or at least visit it often. Popular examples are Yahoo and
MSN. Most portals on the
Internet exist to generate advertising income for their owners, others
may be focused on a specific group of users and may be part of an
extranet. Some may just concentrate on one particular subject, say
technology or medicine, and are known as a vertical portals.
- A formal language in which computer programs are written. The definition
of a particular language consists of both syntax (how the various symbols of
the language may be combined) and semantics (the meaning of the language
Languages are classified as low level if they are close to machine code and
high level if each language statement corresponds to many machine code
instructions (though this could also apply to a low level language with
extensive use of macros, in which case it would be debatable whether it
still counted as low level). A roughly parallel classification is the
description as first generation language through to fifth generation
The other major classification of languages distinguishes between imperative
languages, procedural language and declarative languages.
Programming languages time-line/family tree.
- A standard procedure for regulating data transmission between computers.
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