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Glossary of Internet Terms and Phrases

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Java Servlet

A Java program that runs as part of a network service, typically an HTTP server and responds to requests from clients.

The most common use for a servlet is to extend a web server by generating web content dynamically. For example, a client may need information from a database; a servlet can be written that receives the request, gets and processes the data as needed by the client and then returns the result to the client.

Applets are also written in Java but run inside the JVM of a HTML browser on the client. Servlets and applets allow the server and client to be extended in a modular way by dynamically loading code which communicates with the main program via a standard programming interface.

Servlets are more flexible than CGI scripts and, being written in Java, more portable.

The spelling "servelet" is occasionally seen but JavaSoft spell it "servlet". There is no such thing as a "serverlet".

Home: http://java.sun.com/products/servlet/.

Source: Dictionary.com

Java

A simple, object-oriented, distributed, interpreted, robust, secure, architecture-neutral, portable, multithreaded, dynamic, buzzword-compliant, general-purpose programming language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1995(?). Java supports programming for the Internet in the form of platform-independent Java "applets".

Java is similar to C++ without operator overloading (though it does have method overloading), without multiple inheritance, and extensive automatic coercions. It has automatic garbage collection.

Java programs can run stand-alone on small computers. The interpreter and class support take about 40 kilobytes; adding the standard libraries and thread support (essentially a self-contained microkernel) adds an additional 175Kb.

Java extends C++'s object-oriented facilities with those of Objective C for dynamic method resolution.

Java has an extensive library of routines for TCP/IP protocols like HTTP and FTP. Java applications can access objects across the Internet via URLs as easily as on the local file system.

The Java compiler and linker both enforce strong type checking - procedures must be explicitly typed. Java supports the creation of virus-free, tamper-free systems with authentication based on public-key encryption.

The Java compiler generates an architecture-neutral object file executable on any processor supporting the Java run-time system. The object code consists of bytecode instructions designed to be both easy to interpret on any machine and easily translated into native machine code at load time.

The Java libraries provide portable interfaces. For example, there is an abstract Window class and implementations of it for Unix, Microsoft Windows and the Macintosh. The run-time system is written in POSIX-compliant ANSI C. Java applets can be executed as attachments in World-Wide Web documents using either Sun's HotJava browser or Netscape Navigator version 2.0.

Home: http://java.sun.com.

Source: Dictionary.com

JavaScript

Netscape's simple, cross-platform, World-Wide Web scripting language, only very vaguely related to Java (which is a Sun trademark). JavaScript is intimately tied to the World-Wide Web, and currently runs in only three environments - as a server-side scripting language, as an embedded language in server-parsed HTML, and as an embedded language run in web browsers where it is the most important part of DHTML.

JavaScript has a simplified {C}-like syntax and is tightly integrated with the browser Document Object Model. It is useful for implementing enhanced forms, simple web database front-ends, and navigation enhancements.

JavaScript originated from Netscape and, for a time, only their products supported it. Microsoft now supports a work-alike called JScript. The resulting inconsistencies make it difficult to write JavaScript that behaves the same in all browsers. This could be attributed to the slow progress of JavaScript through the standards bodies.

JavaScript runs "100x" slower than {C}, as it is purely interpreted (Java runs "10x" slower than C code). Netscape and allies say JavaScript is an "open standard" in an effort to keep Microsoft from monopolising web software as they have desktop software. Netscape and Sun have co-operated to enable Java and JavaScript to exchange messages and data.

Source: Dictionary.com

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group)

The original name of the committee that designed the standard image compression algorithm. JPEG is designed for compressing either full-colour or grey-scale digital images of "natural", real-world scenes. It does not work so well on non-realistic images, such as cartoons or line drawings. JPEG does not handle compression of black-and-white (1 bit-per-pixel) images or moving pictures. Standards for compressing those types of images are being worked on by other committees, named JBIG and MPEG.

Home: http://www.jpeg.org.

Filename extension: .jpg, .jpeg.

Source: Dictionary.com

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Last modified: Monday March 21, 2011 12:18 PM